k8s

cfssl生成证书并部署

安装

cfssl是基于go的,因此需要安装go

go get -u github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/cmd/cfssl
go get -u github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/cmd/cfssljson

安装完成后如果不能直接使用cfssl请检查$GOPATH/bin是否加入到PATH环境变量中。

执行cfssl查看一下cfssl提供的命令

Usage:
Available commands:
        sign
        serve
        gencsr
        ocspsign
        ocspserve
        revoke
        certinfo
        version
        crl
        gencert
        ocsprefresh
        scan
        info
        print-defaults
        bundle
        genkey
        gencrl
        ocspdump
        selfsign
Top-level flags:

创建CA

CA的全称是Certificate Authority,也叫证书授权中心。CA的作用是作为一个权威的、被信任的第三方机构,提供管理和签发证书。在使用https访问一个网站时,为了证明这个网站是可信任的,那么就需要使用CA颁发的证书来证明自己。

因为在内网环境中搭建docker-registry,必然不可能用到互联网上的CA机构,因此我们需要自己扮演这个角色。首先创建文件夹

mkdir ca
cfssl print-defaults config > ca/ca-config.json
cfssl print-defaults csr > ca/ca-csr.json

然后修改ca-config.json

{
    "signing": {
        "default": {
            "expiry": "2540400h"
        },
        "profiles": {
            "www": {
                "expiry": "2540400h",
                "usages": [
                    "signing",
                    "key encipherment",
                    "server auth"
                ]
            },
            "client": {
                "expiry": "2540400h",
                "usages": [
                    "signing",
                    "key encipherment",
                    "client auth"
                ]
            }
        }
    }
}

生成ca

cfssl gencert -initca ca/ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca/ca -

生成服务器证书

mkdir server
cfssl print-defaults csr > server/server.json

修改server.json

{
    "CN": "docker-registry",
    "hosts": [
        "docker-registry.k8s",
        "www.docker-registry.k8s"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "ecdsa",
        "size": 256
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "ST": "SH",
            "L": "Shanghai"
        }
    ]
}

签发证书

cfssl gencert -ca=ca/ca.pem -ca-key=ca/ca-key.pem -config=ca/ca-config.json -profile=www server/server.json | cfssljson -bare server/server

使用

上面两步得到了ca.pem, server-key.pem, server.pem。ca.pem是ca的证书,server-key.pem是服务器证书的私钥,server.pem是服务器证书

为了在k8s中使用,我们需要先创建默认的tls secret

kubectl -n docker-registry create secret tls docker-registry-tls-cert --key=server/server-key.pem --cert=server/server.pem

为电脑导入ca证书

sudo mkdir /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra
sudo cp ca.pem /usr/share/ca-certificates/extra/ca.crt

运行命令更新证书

sudo dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates

然后使用curl查看ca根证书是否安装成功

curl -v https://docker-registry.k8s

显示一下内容表示成功

* TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client hello (1):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Server hello (2):
* TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Certificate (11):
* TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Server key exchange (12):
* TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Server finished (14):
* TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client key exchange (16):
* TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS change cipher, Change cipher spec (1):
* TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
* TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
* SSL connection using TLSv1.2 / ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
* ALPN, server accepted to use http/1.1
* Server certificate:
*  subject: C=CN; ST=SH; L=SH; CN=DR
*  start date: Jun 26 06:37:00 2019 GMT
*  expire date: Apr 17 06:37:00 2309 GMT
*  subjectAltName: host "docker-registry.k8s" matched cert's "docker-registry.k8s"
*  issuer: C=US; ST=CA; L=San Francisco; CN=example.net
*  SSL certificate verify ok.
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: docker-registry.k8s
> User-Agent: curl/7.64.0
> Accept: */*
> 
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx/1.15.9
< Date: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 11:40:04 GMT
< Content-Length: 0
< Connection: keep-alive
< Cache-Control: no-cache
< 
* Connection #0 to host docker-registry.k8s left intact

这里有一点需要注意的,我的电脑上安装了anaconda的环境,因此curl是在anaconda下的curl,它会默认加载/home/username/anaconda3/certs/cacert.pem这个。因此我需要将/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt覆盖掉这个文件才能默认加载。或者也可以使用--cacert指定根目录文件的位置。

或者可以参考这篇详细的说明: https://jite.eu/2019/2/6/ca-with-cfssl/#

chrome下的相关设置

即使在我将根证书设置好并且验证成功,但是chrome仍然会有不安全的标识,这是因为需要为chrome单独导入根证书,设置的路径为: 设置 -> 高级 -> HTTPS相关设置。

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